Two weeks ago,I wroteabout how the United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights found multiple links between climate change and how its effects stand toviolate human rights, particularly those already living in poverty. One of those links is the threat climate change poses to the right to food.
“The right to adequatefood as a human rightwas first formally recognized by the United Nations in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) from 1948, as a part of the right to a decent standard of living.”
The right to food, like the right to water which wediscussed last week, is necessary for human life. It seems like an obvious matter of concern – if people do not have food they cannot survive. Yet the protection of this right is already so difficult to sustain.
The right to food requires all around attention and the constant protection of four major areas of concern: food production, food access, food utilization, and nutrition. These will all be affected by, and put under greater threat, by climate change.
According to the World Bank, 702 million people still live in extreme poverty, and793 million people are undernourishedaccording to the State of Food Insecurity in the World (SOFI). These numbers come after two decades of tireless work by humanitarian workers that lifted200 million people out of hunger, so they are seen as numbers of progress. But over the next two decades, the effects of climate change threaten to reverse the work that has been done to combat the threats to the right to food and make the situation a lot worse for millions of people around the world.
The UN World Food Program is so concerned with the effects of climate change on food security that it stated: “Among themost significant impacts of climate change is the potential increase of food insecurity and malnutrition.”
This crisis will see its most significant impacts in rural Africa, but it will also have profound affects here in Canada. Shifts in landforms will change the processes with which our northern communities access their food. Trails will shift due to weather fluctuations and new transportation will have to be accommodated. This will have very real effects for Canadians and the global community – food scarcity is already a battle we are struggling to win. Climate change is increasing the challenges against us in this fight.
In 2012, the Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami and the Inuit Circumpolar Council prepared a submission to the United Nations Special Rapporteur on the Right to Food for the Official Country Mission to Canada. The document, titledInuit and the Right to Food, raised their concerns about how climate change will affect the Inuit peoples:
“Although climate change is being felt on a global scale, the Arctic is on the frontlines of environmental change. Animal species such as caribou are facing a variety of climate related changes in their ranges. Reduced quality of food sources, including berries are already being observed. Safety is now a concern for many hunters because of increased accident rates due to sea ice thinning and unpredictable weather patterns. These changes are continuing to adversely impacting Inuit who 9 depend on country food not only for sustenance and to support the local economy, but also as the basis for cultural and social identity.”
In order to properly brace for the effects climate change will have on humanity, we need a comprehensive picture of what that looks like. The right to food is the second of a series of six blogs I will share with you as the Paris conference quickly approaches. I will continue to look at how climate change is a threat to other human rights over the next few weeks, and welcome your feedback.
Last week I wrote about how the United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights found multiple links between climate change and how its effects stand toviolate human rights, particularly by those already living in poverty. One of those links is the threat climate change poses to the right to water.
1 in 10 people lack access to safe water, and 1 in 3 people lack access to a toilet. More peoplehave mobile phones than a toilet. According to the World Economic Forum in January 2015, the water crisis is the #1 global risk based on impact to society.
Floods, droughts, changes in temperate and extreme fluctuations are already creating challenges for so many people in the world. This will result in increased water scarcity, contamination, and spread of diseases.
In many countries, women and girlscarry the responsibilityfor collecting water for drinking, washing, cooking, cleaning, and living. In our world today, nearly one billion people already lack access to safe drinking water, and 2.5 billion lack access to adequate sanitation. Climate change is only going to make weather conditions more volatile, and threaten more people’s rights to water and sanitation.
The UN defines the right to water as “the right of everyone to sufficient, safe, acceptable, physically accessible and affordable water for personal and domestic use.” This also includes the right to sanitation: “In all spheres of life everyone has the right to physical and economic access to sanitation which is safe, hygienic, secure, socially and culturally acceptable, provides privacy and ensures dignity.”
Despite this reality and the certainty that the right to water for so many stands to be at threat under climate change, water has not been considered seriously enough in climate change negotiations.
A UN position paper argued for change at the 2009 Climate Change Conference: A set ofrecommendationswere laid out, including the “recognition of the pivotal role of water, including its human rights dimensions, in adapting to climate change in order to increase resilience and achieve sustainable development.” It is time we adopt those recommendations and take a serious look at the humanitarian effects of climate change.
In order to properly brace for the effects climate change will have on humanity, we need a comprehensive picture of what that looks like. The right to water is the first of a series of six blogs I will share with you as the Paris conference quickly approaches. I will continue to look at how climate change is a threat to other human rights over the next few weeks, and welcome your feedback.
On November 30th, the United Nations Climate Change Conference will begin in Paris. The purpose of the meetings, that will occur over two weeks, is to assess the progress made on combating climate change, and to work to set new goals. Over the next few weeks leading up to the conference, I hope to amplify an important part of the conversation on climate change: to stress how climate change is a human rights issue.
Typically discussions around climate change revolve around the economy, environment, and science. These are all necessary conversations. But more and more information from these spheres demands that we the question: how will this all impact us as humans?
Some studies have been done already, including by the Pentagon who called climate change asecurity issue, and the United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights who found multiple links between climate change and how its effects stand toviolate human rights, particularly by those already living in poverty.
We know the effects of climate change are inevitable. And we know they will be seen in a multitude of ways: food scarcity and water scarcity could be tipping points for mass migration, extreme weather will destroy homes and cities, and shifts in landforms will change agricultural production and demands. The list goes on and on.
Over the next few weeks leading up to the Paris Conference, I hope to amplify the voices of those who are vulnerable to climate change’s impacts. I will explore a few dimensions of how climate change is a human rights issue. I hope we can remind all delegations going to Paris that we are not just talking about the economy or the environment, as important as those both are: we are talking about humanity.
Stay tuned for my weekly blog posts on the different ways climate change will impact human rights. You will also see updates on myInstagram,Twitter, and Facebookaccounts. I encourage you to talk about this with each other, and also welcome your feedback, thoughts, and concerns.
Bilingualism is at the heart of the Canadian identity. It has many benefits, including social, economic and cognitive advantages. I strongly believe that all Canadians should have access to second language training and all should be able to reap the benefits of bilingualism.
From an economic standpoint, bilingualism creates opportunities and improves job prospects, increases median income, and increases trade opportunities. Research has also shown that bilingualism improves cognitive development as it increases creativity, critical thinking skills, mental dexterity and concentration. Bilingualism also makes learning other languages easier. From a social perspective, bilingualism is an asset as it encourages interactions among language communities; it contributes to national cohesion and allows for communication among people from various cultures. A Canada with a more bilingual population would have a stronger global presence.
In 2011-2012, 2.4 million young Canadians were learning French or English as a second language in Canada’s elementary and secondary schools. Approximately 350,000 young anglophones were enrolled in French immersion programs across the country. Furthermore, close to 62,000 students were enrolled in intensive French programs since they were introduced in Canada in 1998. Although the numbers are on the rise for these specialized programs, the proportion of students in public school enrolled in a core French program has decreased, dropping from 53% in 1991 to 44% in 2011.
As well, there is a decline in the proportion of Canadian youth who can hold a conversation in both English and French. 22.6% of young Canadians between the ages of 15 and 19 had knowledge of both official languages in 2011.
Between 2001 and 2011, the number of youth who had knowledge of both official languages declined from 23.9% to 22.6%. This issue has to be taken very seriously. The status quo is no longer an option.
Based on those statistics, the Standing Senate Committee on Official Languages, of which I am Chair, undertook a study on the best practices for languages policies and second-language learning in a context of linguistic duality or plurality. In June, the Committee tabled its report titled “Aiming Higher: Increasing bilingualism of our Canadian youth” and made 10 recommendations to improve the situation. These recommendations focussed on four specific areas: active promotion of bilingualism; increased fluency in both official languages; innovative practices; and funding.
As the 150th anniversary of Canadian Confederation approaches, Canada must take steps to ensure that bilingualism takes its rightful place as a fundamental value across the country. The Senate Committee believes it is important to immediately take measures to improve the status and equality of Canada’s official languages. We are convinced that a firm commitment from the federal government to actively promote bilingualism and improve official-language proficiency across the country is not only desirable, but also essential.
I am so thrilled to have spoken at the inaugural Canadian ASD Leadership Summit earlier today. Please take a moment to read my remarks:
Good morning, everyone. It seems the more deeply something matters to us, the harder it is to describe. The words elude and even seem to taunt us.
Anyone who knows me knows I am rarely at a loss for words. Describing what this, the first-ever Canadian ASD Leadership Summit, means to me and represents for this country’s autism community is no small challenge. Most of us here can remember only a decade ago when the prospect of a gathering like this was inconceivable. Autism prevented people from taking part in the dynamics of their communities. It certainly wasn’t what it is today – a cause around which thought leaders have come together.
Looking around this room, recognizing so many friends and acquaintances, I am convinced that it is only a matter of time before our goals are realized. At this moment and within the current environment, I have never, ever, believed more in a national Autism Spectrum Disorder strategy. The absolute need for one, as well as our capacity to achieve one.
We are all in this together and the discussions and exchanges of ideas you are about to embark on represent a major steppingstone toward inciting our federal government to take leadership in improving the lives of every autistic child and adult in Canada.
The various experiences we undergo, what we learn and who we meet along the way are also steppingstones. Each of us has had an autism journey. Some of you have heard the story of mine already, but I will share it today as a way of introducing myself to those of you who haven’t, and to spark reflections on your own journeys.
It’s been about 12 years since I first realized how difficult life can be for people affected by autism.
It began with a chance encounter. As I was walking up the Hill to my office, I caught sight of a man who was quietly “protesting,” for lack of a better word, for support for his autistic son. I stopped to listen to what he had to say about his life.
His son’s need for constant care. The financial costs and the pressures to meet those costs. The scarcity of support and resources. The anxiety. The isolation.
These experiences were not exclusive to this young father. I understood this. They were and are still the experiences of thousands of families affected by autism.
That encounter was an awakening for me. I wanted to find out more about this disorder. To help autistic children and their families.
At that time, I was new in my role as a senator. Fortunately, though, I had forged some strong associations with a few exceptional colleagues who were experienced at using their positions to promote social causes. They were mentors for me. They were also receptive to my desire to help people with autism.
The Senate Committee on Social Affairs, Science and Technology responded to my insistence and undertook a lengthy, comprehensive study. In March 2007, the committee released its report on that study, Pay Now or Pay Later – Autism Families in Crisis.
Autism advocates across Canada applauded the report’s recommendations, particularly the call for the federal government to develop a national ASD strategy. This goal has been a significant catalyst for Canada’s autism advocates to pull together to ensure their collective voice is heard. As a result, we have a community.
The autism community is a collection of many voices. When it comes to achieving our goals for those with ASD, we must be one voice. One strong voice advocating what we believe is best.
It takes commitment to cooperate and break down silos of expertise to work with individuals and organizations that, though like-minded, are also different.
Established just months following the release of the Senate autism report, the Canadian Autism Spectrum Disorder Alliance embodies such commitment. Eight years since its formation, CASDA continues to grow and is unyielding in its determination to engage all levels of government in addressing its call for inclusion and improved, coordinated services.
What is at stake is what has always been at stake. Human rights. The rights of everyone to be treated equally. We have not always described it in these terms, but our work and our society have advanced enough that we now can.
There is always more to learn about the symptoms of autism and how they impact the health and lives of those within the spectrum. Working closely and regularly with autistic people, you appreciate what can be gained from looking past the autism. To see the human being.
From this point of view, injustices and the moral necessity to correct them are in sharp focus. We are better equipped to identify and act in respect to the real-life needs of human beings impacted by autism.
A bridge to nowhere. I use this expression to describe what people with autism confront when they make the transition from being children to becoming adults. This transition carries serious and difficult social and personal implications.
Once children with autism turn 18, they lose their pediatricians. They lose their eligibility for publicly funded speech and language services and behavioural therapy. At 21, they can no longer attend public school. Only a lucky few live in group homes, attend day programs or have even part-time jobs.
And, of course, it is not only the children with autism who are getting older. Their parents who care for them are too – which heaps worry on uncertainty, and creates desperation within families.
Some of you here have talked with me about what is best for people with autism. What they need and want most is what we all need and want most to realize our human potential – opportunities to learn, to acquire life skills and to become as independent as possible. Where there is a lack of opportunities to support transitions, gaps must be filled and changes introduced. Inclusion has to be an explicit social and policy priority. Ignoring the necessity for and failing to create these vital opportunities is a human rights travesty.
Like each of your journeys, mine has included emotional, often heart-wrenching stories about people. People from anywhere in Canada. From Woodstock, New Brunswick, for instance. Not far from where I come from.
Two years ago, I met with a group of parents there who were raising their autistic children without the benefit of even knowing what public resources they were eligible for or how to access them. Meanwhile, the provincial government was puttering away less than two hours down the highway from their homes – where they struggled in isolation, without support or guidance.
On a stormy night in Walton, Ontario, near Lake Huron, I sat with another group of parents. One of them was a mother who spoke tearfully about her experiences raising her autistic son who is prone to violence. She described how her only defence against being physically hurt by him was that she could still outrun him. She must have other options – but it is quite likely, those options are actually more drastic and risky.
It is 2015, and she has to run from her own son down an isolated country road in the middle of the night.
Can you imagine? Yes, I know you can. We have all heard stories like these again and again.
We have also heard inspirational stories. There is a lot of good being accomplished. All of you in this room have achieved advancements in research, treatments, therapies, social advocacy, program development and other facets of the challenge.
Here in Ottawa, for example, we have Suzanne Jacobson’s Quick Start and Kick Start programs. In Montreal, we have Spectrum Productions supporting the creativity of youth on the autism spectrum.
We will have the opportunity tomorrow to hear more about these and other remarkable programs and initiatives to meet needs and to deliver guidance and encouragement that enliven people and help them explore their abilities. The Promising Practices Snap Shots scheduled in the agenda are a great concept for showcasing what is happening within our vast community and the scope of new, innovative approaches to instilling more balance in the lives of people with autism.
Throughout this country and within our autism community, evidence of compassion and respect for the potential in people with autism is everywhere. We are always progressing.
Even within the federal government, there are a few promising signs. It has introduced improvements to our capacity to address the autism crisis. The Income Tax Act includes some helpful provisions such as disability tax credits. National surveillance is in its early stages. A research chair in ASD has recently been created at York University. In our last federal budget, a generous investment was allocated to supporting Ready, Willing and Able, which assists people with disabilities enter the workforce.
All of these actions support the human right to live fully and contribute to society. But like all the amazing offerings from this country’s autism community, they would be so much more effective if implemented strategically – as parts of a national machine.
Several years ago in the Senate, we called for the creation of a Canadian Mental Health Commission. We now have one. Why not a Canadian Autism Commission? It would be a suitable starting point for a national ASD strategy.
In the absence of strong, reliable federal government commitment, here we are. With the national needs assessment survey complete and a report prepared, we have strong evidence of real human experiences, gaps in services and what should be priority areas for future work. You will discuss this evidence and, by the time this summit wraps up, you will have arrived at some important decisions.
While you and all members of the autism community are realizing remarkable successes, the autism challenge is also evolving – becoming increasingly widespread and complex.
Right here in Ottawa, not far from where we are gathered, we have had recent incidents of police actually handcuffing young schoolchildren in situations where teachers could not manage their aggression stemming from autism.
It doesn’t do any good to blame anyone. That gets you nowhere. Here at this summit, it is my hope we will issue a national call to help police, teachers and front-line workers in public settings to acquire the right tools and learn how to comfort autistic children who become aggressive. To understand the experiences of these children and help them cope. We owe it to our children to be a guiding force in understanding their reality.
At this summit, it is my overriding hope that you construct a road map through this and all pieces of the puzzle to arrive at a good place.
This is Ottawa. This is a political town. And this is an election year.
A smart party would embrace a call for a national ASD strategy. If all three major parties endorsed a strategy, then I as an independent Senator will endorse all of them on that platform in an election campaign.
Last fall, I was in Calgary visiting a number of first-class organizations like the Sinneave Centre and the Society for the Treatment of Autism. At the treatment centre, I found myself in a special place, where an intensive behavioural therapist was, well, playing in a sensory room with a five-year-old boy named Tahir.
I call it playing, but that word doesn’t quite capture what was taking place or the impact it was having on this little boy. The therapist was essentially leading Tahir to a steppingstone – preparing him to one day take his place as an adult in our society.
As soon as I entered the room and got settled, he was practically in my lap. Smiling non-stop and actually squealing with delight, he at one point grabbed my hand and we began to rock back and forth. Back and forth.
We were communicating. We were, as they say, in the moment.
I was told that this was not the same boy who first arrived for treatment years before. For the first two years there, there were no smiles. There was no interaction with anyone. Tahir was completely detached from others, unable to express his beautiful feelings.
As a society, we owe it to Tahir to build a bridge to somewhere. To a place where he can function, where he can live, where he can contribute to the world, and where he will be loved. Loved for who he is as a person, not just someone who is autistic. As a person like you and me.
What I know from my ongoing relationship with people who make up the autism community is that your capacity to care and heed your instincts to help others is unbeatable. It is certainly more formidable than the hesitancy and resistance of our elected decision-makers to redefining social goals and priorities.
At this summit, as you undertake discussions and the process of learning from each other and reaching decisions about next steps, you will most certainly nudge our country forward. You will make an important difference for Tahir and countless others.
I am grateful to you for your attention and to the organizers of this important event for inviting my wife Ginette and I to take part in Canada’s inaugural autism leadership summit. It is a pleasure and an honour to be here.